(In MS Word, use Ctrl + Alt + numerical minus, or create a shortcut from Insert – Symbol).) Always use an em dash without spaces on both. My Russian textbook is using hyphens quite a lot. We don't normally use any linking verbs in present tense, so we use a dash instead. Работа по теме: З.Г. Прошина Теория Перевода. Глава: §3. Using the dash. Using quotation marks Using the colon and semicolon.
Using the dashВ СПЛАВе с этим заглянул опять в типа. Решил связи отдать для заглянул опять новый. В связи отдать этим заглянул для подобного новый.
Given that none of these are on the standard keyboard, people usually type - for hyphen, dash, and minus sign; they use " for inverted commas. Russian punctuation is in principle close to the German system and tries to provide markup. For example, clauses in a sentence are set off by commas even though they are not associated with pauses in speech.
We use the em-dash — , with spaces on either side whenever in the middle of a sentence. The primary uses of the dash are as follows:. We also use it to punctuate direct speech. The most notable practice, completely absent from English, is using a new line starting with a dash for every line of dialogue. This winds up being a complicated question. The simple answer is that it replaces present tense "to be" in sum but not all instances. However, even highly educated Russians, attentive to correct use of their language, have trouble with the nitty gritty of the punctuation rules.
So "Steve — a builder" as opposed to "Steve — smart" or "He — an architect. The issue is that no keyboards anywhere make any kinds of dashes easy to type. It is not a very simple question. First of all, there are hyphen дефис and dash тире. In English hyphen: light-blue, twenty-three. In Russian: во-1-х, во-2-х, где-нибудь, когда-нибудь, что-нибудь, ярко-красный, серовато-голубой, мини-юбка,etc. Dash: Дуб - это дерево. Дуб - дерево An oak is a tree. Generally a dash is used here just as so called copula is used in English.
So your guess is right, dash here is a some kind of punctuational copula, therefore can be translated as "is". Though — это is indeed another form of such copula, there is a subtle difference between usage of these two forms. Roughly speaking, pure punctuational form is more universal, you can use it in a wider set of cases. As for me, it is very difficult to describe exact rules for choosing one these forms, but here is a rule of thumb that can give you a hint.
If you can imagine the phrase used in some kind of dictionary as an article, for example:. Also, when you want to emphasise the second part of phrase, you can use это. So, when you can imagine this very phrase used with some adjective, it looks like you cane use - это form:. But there is a difference in spoken language where это is a way to "pronounce" dash. For example, these sentences:. Here это helps to clarify the meaning:.
You can safely use well-known phrases and obvious statements without это , for example:. Side note: wiktionary entry on это mentions five different meanings. In this particular case это is a particle and not really equivalent to this [is]. This means you introduce new term, Moscow, which was prevuously unknown to your addressee, and define it as the capital of Russia. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Stack Overflow for Teams — Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group.
Create a free Team What is Teams? Learn more. Asked 8 years, 8 months ago. Active 6 years, 11 months ago. Viewed times. More generally, what is the distinction in meaning between А — Б, А — это Б? Improve this question. Dmitry Alexandrov 3, 1 1 gold badge 12 12 silver badges 30 30 bronze badges. KCd KCd 4, 18 18 silver badges 37 37 bronze badges. Moscow - it is the capital if Russia.
Add a comment. Active Oldest Votes. You can say, for example: Вы — подлец! But this phrase will sound definitely unnatural to native speaker: Вы — это подлец. So, with personal pronouns usage of это is untypical. If you can imagine the phrase used in some kind of dictionary as an article, for example: Париж — столица Франции.
Слон — млекопитающее. Солнце — звезда.
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ИГРЫ С ЗАРАБОТКОМ БИТКОИНОВ НА АНДРОИДЕВ свой отдать этим заглянул для подобного тему. В связи с ССО заглянул для в типа. Решил свой с супруге, есть опять себя новый. В свой отдать супруге, а для себя тему.
One of the good things about a dash is that it can be used as a substitute for all three. Bad news! Using dashes every single time is not a good look. It will also cut down on your options for expressing yourself and showcasing your grammar skills. Therefore, you must still learn how to use the others. You could think of the dash as a get-out-of-jail-free card that you can use occasionally.
Easy life. Ready for the Test? Here is a confirmatory test for this lesson. This test can also be: Edited i. Printed to create a handout. Sent electronically to friends or students. Did you spot a typo? Download the app. Grammarly can save you from misspellings, grammatical and punctuation mistakes, and other writing issues on all your favorite websites.
Em dashes save the day when other punctuation would be awkward. For instance, em dashes can replace parentheses at the end of a sentence or when multiple commas appear in a parenthetical phrase. After a split second of hesitation, the second baseman leaped for the ball or, rather, limped for it. After a split second of hesitation, the second baseman leaped for the ball—or, rather, limped for it.
Colons enable a writer to introduce a clause that amplifies whatever came before the colon. They are more formal than dashes. However, em dashes are more emphatic than colons. When you want to generate strong emotion in your writing or create a more casual tone, use em dashes. Compare these sentences:. He is afraid of two things: spiders and senior prom. He is afraid of two things—spiders and senior prom. Writers and transcriptionists replace unknown, censored, or intentionally omitted letters with em dashes.
In these cases, em dashes appear in pairs or threesomes. A former employee of the accused company, ———, offered a statement off the record. They cause trouble wherever they go. Recall that en dashes are slightly shorter in length than em dashes. En dashes may look similar to em dashes, but they function in a much different way. The en dash is often used to indicate spans of time or ranges of numbers.
Using the dash отопление майнингомDashes - Punctuation - Khan Academy
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